The ideas of borders, boundaries, borderlands, border-crossings and transgressions of borders that the representatives of various disciplines use, are increasingly employed in a metaphoric sense so that they do not inevitably refer to the material spaces with which geographers typically deal. These concepts are increasingly used not only in relation to state boundaries [...], but also more generally to social and cultural boundaries as instruments through which social distinctions are constructed (Welchman, 1996). Hence, new conceptualizations and representations of space have emerged within cultural studies, differing from those which political geographers traditionally created in their accounts of boundaries, many of which are, anyway, explicit representations of space, scale and culture (Agnew, 1993). Political geographers have themselves become increasingly interested in the cultural and social meanings of (state) boundaries, and in boundaries as contested cultural and symbolic manifestations of territoriality (Leimgruber, 1991; Falah and Newman, 1995; Hasson, 1996; Paasi, 1995; 1996a).

Paasi, A. & Newman, D. (1998). Fences and neighbours in the postmodern world: boundary narratives in political geography. Progress in Human Geography 22.2: 186-207, p. 188.